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Tutorial Part 3: Using Python With SAYN

The previous section of this tutorial showed you how to use SAYN for data modelling purposes. We will now show you how to use Python with SAYN. This will therefore enable you to write end-to-end ELT processes and data science tasks with SAYN. Let's dive in!

Adding Your Python Task Group

As we did for the autosql tasks, we will need to add a task group for our Python tasks. To do so, add the following to your project.yaml:




      type: python
      module: say_hello

This will do the following:

  • Create a task group called say_hello.
  • All tasks in this group will be of type python.
  • All functions using the task decorator in the file python/ will be transformed into Python tasks. This file should already exist in your python folder and defines one task: say_hello. All python tasks should be stored in the python folder where an file must exist.

Writing Your Python Tasks

A Simple Python Task

Our tutorial project has two python tasks. It starts with a simple Python task that interacts with the task's context. This is the say_hello task in the python/ file, defined as follows:


from sayn import task

def say_hello(context):'Hello!')

Here are the core concepts to know for running Python tasks with SAYN:

  • You should import the task decorator from sayn which you can then use to define your tasks. There is a more advanced way to define python tasks with classes using SAYN which you can find in the documentation related to python tasks.
  • Use the @task decorator and then simply define your function. The task name will be the name of the function, in this case say_hello.
  • We pass the context to our function, which can then be used in our code to access task related information and control the logger. In our case, we log Hello! as information.

Creating Data Logs

The second task in the python/ module actually does something more interesting. It creates some random logs, which is the data you initially had in the logs table of dev.db. First, let's add this task to project.yaml by adding a task group:




      type: python
      module: load_data

Let's look at whole the code from the python/ file:


import random
from uuid import uuid4

from sayn import task

def say_hello(context):'Hello!')

def load_data(context, warehouse):
    fighters = ["Son Goku", "John", "Lucy", "Dr. x", "Carlos", "Dr. y?"]
    arenas = ["Earth Canyon", "World Edge", "Namek", "Volcanic Crater", "Underwater"]
    tournaments = ["World Championships", "Tenka-ichi Budokai", "King of the Mountain"]

            "Generate Dimensions",
            "Generate Battles",
            "Load fighters",
            "Load arenas",
            "Load tournaments",
            "Load battles",

    with context.step("Generate Dimensions"):
        # Add ids to the dimensions
        fighters = [
            {"fighter_id": str(uuid4()), "fighter_name": val}
            for id, val in enumerate(fighters)
        arenas = [
            {"arena_id": str(uuid4()), "arena_name": val}
            for id, val in enumerate(arenas)
        tournaments = [
            {"tournament_id": str(uuid4()), "tournament_name": val}
            for id, val in enumerate(tournaments)

    with context.step("Generate Battles"):
        battles = list()
        for tournament in tournaments:
            tournament_id = tournament["tournament_id"]
            # Randomly select a number of battles to generate for each tournament
            n_battles = random.choice([10, 20, 30])

            for _ in range(n_battles):
                battle_id = str(uuid4())

                # Randomly choose fighters and arena
                fighter1_id = random.choice(fighters)["fighter_id"]
                fighter2_id = random.choice(
                    [f for f in fighters if f["fighter_id"] != fighter1_id]
                arena_id = random.choice(arenas)["arena_id"]

                # Pick a winner
                winner_id = (
                    fighter1_id if random.uniform(0, 1) <= 0.5 else fighter2_id

                        "event_id": str(uuid4()),
                        "tournament_id": tournament_id,
                        "battle_id": battle_id,
                        "arena_id": arena_id,
                        "fighter1_id": fighter1_id,
                        "fighter2_id": fighter2_id,
                        "winner_id": winner_id,

    data_to_load = {
        "fighters": fighters,
        "arenas": arenas,
        "tournaments": tournaments,
        "battles": battles,

    # Load logs
    for log_type, log_data in data_to_load.items():
        with context.step(f"Load {log_type}"):
            warehouse.load_data(f"logs_{log_type}", log_data, replace=True)

The second task defined in this module is the load_data one. It uses some further features:

  • The load_data task produces outputs which are defined in the decorator. This will enable you to refer to these outputs with the src function in autosql tasks and automatically set dependencies to the load_data task.
  • warehouse is also passed as a parameter to the function. This enables you to easily access the warehouse connection in your task. You can notably see that at the end of the script with the call to warehouse.load_data.

Setting Dependencies With load_data

As mentioned, we now have a python task which produces some logs which we want our autosql tasks to use for the data modelling process. As a result, we should ensure that the load_data task is always executed first. Because our load_data task produces outputs, we can refer to these with the src function in autosql tasks and automatically create dependencies. For example, the SQL query of the dim_arenas task should be changed from:


SELECT l.arena_id
     , l.arena_name
  FROM logs_arenas l


sql/dim_arenas.sql amended

SELECT l.arena_id
     , l.arena_name
  FROM {{ src('logs_arenas') }} l

This will now mention that the dim_arenas task sources the logs_arenas table which is an output of the load_data task. SAYN will automatically make load_data a parent of the dim_arenas task and therefore always execute it before. You can do the same for all the other logs tables used in the other autosql tasks.

What Next?

This is it for our tutorial. You should now have a good understanding of the true power of SAYN! Our documentation has more extensive details about all the SAYN core concepts:

Enjoy SAYN and happy ELT-ing! :)